1.     Care for an infant.

1.1.     Eye, ear and nose care.

        The ears are cleaned with the twisted end of a washcloth or very carefully with a cotton-tipped swab. The swab is not inserted into the canal but is gently rotated around the pinna and immediate site of entry into the external canal.


2.1.    The cleansing of genitalia.

        The genitalia of both sexes require careful cleansing.

        Cleansing of the vulva is done in a front-to-back direction for the protection against urinary tract infection.

        Cleansing the male genitalia involves washing the penis and scrotum. The foreskin is not retracted because it is normally tight in newborns.

        The buttocks and anal area are thoroughly cleansed of any fecal material and dried to prevent a warm, moist environment that fosters growth of bacteria.

3.1.    Care of the umbilicus.

        The umbilical cord is clamped and cut after delivery. The stump deteriorates through the process of dry gangrene and falls off in 7 to 10 days. After the stump has fallen off, the cord base takes a few more weeks to heal completely.

        To prevent infection, it is wiped with an alcohol swab.