INFANT CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a way to do the work of the heart and lungs. The heart pumps the blood around the body to provide oxygen and nutrients to the different body systems. The lungs are a transfer spot. As the blood flows through the lungs, oxygen is picked up by the blood and carbon dioxide is released. When the infant breathes, oxygen is brought into the body and carbon dioxide is breathed out.

Before beginning CPR you must assess the infant to determine if both breathing and the heart have stopped. CPR is done when the infant's heart and breathing have stopped. You can breathe for the infant by blowing air into the lungs. Between breaths, the chest falls and air flows out of the lungs. The heart can be squeezed between the breastbone and the backbone to force blood out of the heart and into the arteries that carry it to the rest of the body. When you remove the pressure, the heart fills with blood so that the next squeeze (compression) will force additional blood to the body.

All of the infant's caregivers must be able to perform CPR so that you can have relief and help if needed. Prepare for an emergency before it happens.

 

ASSESSMENT

1  Look at the infant's color to see if it is normal

2  Look at the infant again to determine if he or she is breathing.

3  Look to see if the infant's chest is moving.

4  Place your ear by the infant's nose and mouth and listen for air moving.

5  Slap the bottom of the infant's feet if there is a change in skin color or if the infant is not breathing.

6  Begin CPR at once if the infant has not started breathing after his or her feet were slapped.

7  If there is someone else with you, have that person call the emergency telephone numbers for help. If you are alone, do not stop to call, but begin CPR immediately. o CPR for 1 minute, then call theemergency numbers as quickly as possible.


Follow ABC sequence:

 

A AIRWAY

 

1 Place the infant on his back on a firm surface.

2 Properly position the head and open the airway by placing your hand on the forehead and place the fingers
(not thumb) of your other hand under the bony pan of the lower jaw near the middle of the chin. Then lift
and slightly tilt the head backward to a sniffing or nose pointing to the ceiling position. Proper positioning is essential to allow air to enter the windpipe to the lungs. If vomit is present, you must clear the infant's mouth before you breathe for the infant.

3 Quickly remove any mucus or vomit with your fingers or a bulb syringe after turning the infant's head to the side. If using a bulb syringe, squeeze it before placing it in the mouth, then release the pressure in the bulb to remove the material.

a. Open the infant's mouth by grasping the tongue and lower jaw between your thumb and fingers.

b. If you see an object, vomit, or mucus, insert the index or little finger of your other hand inside the mouth on the side farthest from you .

c. Move your finger across the back of the throat toward you. This sweeping action will help remove foreign objects.

Once the mouth is clear, reposition the head and observe the chest to determine if the infant has begun breathing. Place your ear close to the infant's mouth and look, listen, and feel for breathing for 3 to 5 seconds.

 

B BREATHING

1 If breathing has not begun, you must breathe for the infant.

a. Open your mouth wide. Cover both the nose and mouth with your mouth. If the infant is large, cover his mouth with yours and press your cheek against his nose so air cannot escape from there.

b. Give two slow breaths about 1 to 2 seconds in length, pausing to inhale between them. Each breath should be just enough to make the chest rise.

2 If you do not see the chest rise, reposition the head and try again. After repositioning the head, if you still cannot see the chest rise, then follow the instructions for Caring for die choking infant.

3 If the infant vomits, turn his head to the side and clean out the mouth with your finger or the bulb syringe.

 

C CIRCULATION

1 After giving two breaths and seeing the chest rise, if the infant does not start breathing on his own, check his pulse.

2 Lightly place your index and middle fingers on the inside of the infant's elbow on the side closest to his body. Feel for a pulse for 5 to 10 seconds. Practice this before an emergency arises to become used to finding the pulse.

3 When there is a pulse but no breathing, rescue breathing should be started and continued until the infant resumes breathing. For an infant, the rate should be 1 breath every 3 seconds, or 20 per minute. Rescue breathing may be all that is needed to restart the infant's breathing.

4 Begin cardiac compressions if there is no pulse.

5 Locate the correct position for chest compressions. Draw an imaginary line connecting the infant's nipples. While holding the head in the correct position (see step 2), place two fingers one finger width below the imaginary line on the breastbone.

6 Using your index and middle finger, press straight down on the breast bone from 1-1.5 cm (½ to 1 inch).

7 Compress the chest at least 100 times per minute. To keep from going too fast, count 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 5 in your head.

8 CPR may be stopped only if:

a.               The infant begins breathing and the heart rate returns to normal.

b.               You are relieved by someone who can do CPR.

c.                You reach medical assistance and other action is begun.

If the infant begins breathing on his own, write down a description of what occurred and immediately notify your health professional.