Transplacental Infections

A Selection of Internet Sites

[*] Outstanding
[P] For Professionals
[S] Support Groups
[T] Teaching



[P][*] Congenital Infections of the Newborn Fact Sheets for Health Professionals
The term TORCH is now outdated and best avoided, but some still find it a useful aid in remembering some causes of infection … Varicella zoster … Syphilis … Hepatitis B … Parvovirus … HIV … Chlamydia trachomatis … Mycoplasma … Group B streptococcus … The time to provide information to mothers about these infections is before pregnancy begins, because this is the best time for preventive measures.

[*] Congenital Infections
Neal P. Simon, M.D. Congenital infections affect the unborn fetus or newborn infant. They are generally caused by viruses that may be picked up by the baby at any time during the pregnancy up throght the time of delivery...The more common viruses linked to congenital infections include the cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes, Rubella (German measles), Parvovirus, Varicella(chickenpox), and Enterovirus...

[T] Congenital Infections
Selected medical images

[P][*] Infection and Pregnancy Loss
Jacob Tangir, M.D. Yale University School of Medicine … Infectious agents has been long recognized as a cause for spontaneous abortion and perinatal … Syphilis … Toxoplasmosis … Rubella … Measles … Parvovirus … Varicella … Cytomegalovirus … Listeriosis … Salmonellosis … Shigellosis … Lyme Disease … Hepatitis … Gonorrhea … HIV … Herpes … Chlamydia … Mycoplasma … Group B Streptococcal Infection.

[*] TORCH testing panels discontinued
Pamela Bruce-Staskal et al. The term "TORCH" was used to increase the awareness of pathogens capable of causing in utero infections. Theses includes (T) Toxoplasma Gondii, (O) other agents such syphilis, (R) Rubella, (C) Cytomegalovirus, (H) Herpes Simple...

Maternal infection and the risk for cerebral palsy
Babies of normal birth weight who are exposed to infection in their mothers' wombs appear to have a nine-fold increased risk of developing cerebral palsy (CP), according to a study published in the July 16, 1997, issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). Mayo physicians say that this finding, although compelling, is preliminary and should not cause pregnant women to be unduly concerned.

Intrauterine Infections

Intrauterine and Perinatal Infections
Dr. Raymond Lin … KK Women's and Children's Hospital.

[Spanish] Infecciones/Enfermedades durante el embarazo

[P] Congenital hydrocephalus: Role of transplacental myxovirus infection
Tomoyuki Takano et al. The define etiology in most cases of congenital hydrocefalus still remains unknown...studies have been reported on the experimental...TORCH (Toxoplasma, Other agents, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex). Above all mumps virus induces a high frequency of hydrocephalus...

[*] Congenital Rubella Syndrome
Susan Reef, MD et al. Rubella is viral illness caused by a togavirus of the genus Rubivirus...When rubella infection occurs during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, fetal infection is likely and often causes congenital rubella syndrome(CRS), resulting in abortions, miscarriages, stillbirths, and severe birth defects. Up to 20% of the infants born to mothers infected during the first half of pregnancy have CRS. The most common congenital defects are cataracts, heart disease, sensorineural deafness, and mental retardation...

Rubella Syndrome, Congenital
Rubella infection in utero ... Confirmed: a clinically compatible case that is laboratory confirmed ...

[*][S][Spanish] Rub้ola

Histoplasmosis and the Eye
Histoplasmosis is a disease caused when airborne spores of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum … Found throughout the world in river valleys and soil where bird or bat droppings accumulate … Disturbed by plowing fields, sweeping chicken coops, or digging holes.

[*][P] Histoplasmosis
The disease primarily affect the lungs.

[*][P] Histoplasmosis: Protecting Workers at Risk
Histoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by inhaling.

Toxoplasmosis and Pregnancy by OTIS
"... The information below will help you determine if Toxoplasmosis represents an increased fetal risk. If you have any additional questions or for information regarding OTIS, contact the Teratology Information Service in your area ... with every pregnancy, all women have a 3 to 5 percent chance to have a baby with a birth defect ... Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. You can get it by eating undercooked, infected meat, or handling soil or cat feces that contain the parasite. Swelling of the lymph nodes or a mononucleosis-type (fever, fatigue, and sore throat) illness may be seen. Most adults have no symptoms. In most cases, once you have gotten toxoplasmosis, you cannot get it again ... in the United States, approx. two-thirds of women have never had toxoplasmosis and are at risk for an infection ..."

Genital Herpes
Hellenic Association Dermatology-Venereology. Many Web links. Genital herpes management guidelines...

[T] Herpes Simplex Infection, Type II
Dept. of Dermatology-University of Iowa College of Medicine. Picture

[T] Herpes Simplex
Gallery. Graphic Content

Chicken Pox and Pregnancy by OTIS
"... The information below will help you determine if chicken pox infection represents an increased fetal risk. If you have any additional questions or for information regarding OTIS, contact the Teratology Information Service in your area ... with every pregnancy, all women have a 3 to 5 percent chance to have a baby with a birth defect ... Chicken Pox, also called varicella, is a viral infection that usually occurs in childhood. The most common symptom is a rash, which first appears as small, reddish spots or pimples. These spots blister and then scab over. New spots appear for up to 3-5 days. Often a fever and body aches occur before the rash appears. Pneumonia occurs in 10-15 percent of teenageers and adults who have chicken pox ... you are not immune if a blood test shows you do not have antibodies to the chicken pox virus. If you are not immune, you are at risk for being infected. In that case, you may take zoster immune globulin (ZIG) after being directly exposed ... newborns could develop congenital varicella ... most of the babies born to women who develop shingles in pregnancy are normal. Birth defects have been seen in a small number of babies whose mothers had shingles in pregnancy. These birth defects are the same birth defects seen with chicken pox. Because shingles is much less common in pregnancy than chicken pox, it is unknown how often these birth defects occur after shingles has developed ..."

Fifth Disease in Pregnancy by OTIS
"... The information below will help you determine if Fifth disease represents an increased fetal risk. If you have any additional questions or for information regarding OTIS, contact the Teratology Information Service in your area ... What is fifth disease? Is fifth disease contagious? My children had fifth disease ... I am pregnant. Could I have fifth disease? Is my pregnancy at increased risk of problems because of the infection? Fifth disease, also called erythema infectiosum, is a viral illness ... fifth disease is contagious ... if you have fifth disease during pregnancy, there is about a 25 to 35 percent risk that the fetus will become infected. Having fifth disease rarely causes birth defects or brain damage, but can lead to early pregnancy loss (miscarriage) or late pregnancy loss (stillbirth). Most pregnancy losses due to fifth disease infection happen 4 to 12 weeks after the mother's illness begins ..."

Malaria Infection during Pregnancy: Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Preterm Delivery
Amy D. Sullivan, et al … The Journal of Infectious Diseases 1999;179:1580-1583 … Malaria infection in pregnancy contributes to low birth weight through intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and preterm delivery (PTD).

[*][S][Spanish] Ei Vih y el SIDA en el embarazo

Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation

[English][Spanish] Gateway to AIDS Knowledge
By University of San Francisco

[S] United States HIV/AIDS Service Organizations
Alaska, Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California ...